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365体育网址 > 365体育网址 > 行业知识
行业知识

纺织品的各种基础知识

日期:2014/10/30    浏览次数:2872

第一章  织物的基本知识


一、 单位换算:1码(Y)=0.9144米(M)  1英寸(1″)=2.54厘米(CM) 1码=36英寸 1磅(LB)=454克(g)  1盎司=(OZ)=28.3克(g)

二、织物规格参数定义:

1、 dannishu:biaoshizhangxianshadecuxi,jizhangduwei9000midesha,qizhongliangwei1ke(g),tongchangdingyiwei1dan,yongyingwenzimu“d”biaoshi。ru:yigen9000mizhangdesha,chengqizhongliangwei70ke,jidingyiwei70dan。zhuyaoyongyubiaoshihuaxiandecuxi。

365体育网址2、tiaoshuhejingweimi:biaoshibuliaodemidu,jimeipingfangyingcunneijingshayuweishadetiaoshuhe,yongyingwenzimu“t”biaoshi。shutiaoshushizhuyifenxibuliaodebianzhifangfa,zhaochuxiangyingdebianzhiguilv,cainengzhunquedecechutiaoshu。

365体育网址3、fshu:meiyigenjingshahuoweishadoushiyouruogangenxishahechengde,fshubiaoshiyigenjingshahuoweishazhongdexishagushu,yongyingwenzimu“f”biaoshi,yibanqingkuangxia,“fshu”yueda,buliaoshouganyuepengsong、yuerouruan。fanzhishouganyuedanboyueying。

365体育网址4、duanxianshadecuxibiaoshi:yibanqingkuangxiayong”zhisha”biaoshi,ji1bangzhongdemianhuachuochushadezhangduwei840ma,chengzheigenshawei1zhisha,yongyingwenzimu”s”biaoshi,ru21zhishajiwei21s.zhuyaoyongyubiaoshimian、ma、365tiyuwangzhi、hunfangxianweiyijihuaxianduanxianweidecuxi。(jinghuansuan:21sxiangdangyu250ddezhongliang)

5、zhiwuguigebiaoshifa:


jingshacuxi/fshu×weishacuxi/fshu

×youxiaofukuan


jingshatiaoshu+weishatiaoshu

ru:

365体育网址70d/36f×70d/36f

×60″yekesuoxiewei70d×190t×60″

118t+80t

三、织物分类:

1、anxingzhifenlei(changjianfenleiruxia)

 xianweianxingzhikefenweitianranxianweiherenzaoxianweiliangdalei。qizhongtianranxianweibaokuocansimian、ma、yangmaodeng,renzaoxianweibaokuonilong、dilun、cusuanxianweidengdeng,xiamianduijizhongjiaoweichangyongdexianweijinxingxiangxidijieshao:

a、nilong: yingwenwei”nylon”,yibanyong“n”biaoshi,yecheng“jinlun”。nilongyoufenwei“nilong6”he“nilong66”。“nilong66”degezhongwulixingnengdoujiao“nilong6”weihao,jiageyejiaogui。yibanqingkuangxia,yonghuoshaomaobaiyan,wenqilaiyouyizhongjiemodeweidao。tongchangyongsuanxingranliaoranse。

b、dilun: yingwenwei“polyester”,yibanyong“t”biaoshi。yibanqingkuangxia,yonghuoshaomaoheiyan(danyeyaozhuyi,nilongtujiaohouyinweijiaodeyingu,ranshaohouyechengheiyan,yinciyaozhuyibianbie),ranshaosudujiaokuai,wenqilaiyouyigujiaochoudeweidao。tongchangyongfensanxingranliaoranse,yaozhuyiyiranheshenghualaoduwenti。

c、mian:yingwenwei“cotton”,yibanyong“c”biaoshi。yibanqingkuangxia,yonghuoshao,ranshaosudujiaohuanman,huoyanweihuangse,mianshaoqilaideweidaodajiajiaoweishuxi。tianranmianranshaohoudehuijinshibaisede,renzaomiandabufenranshaohouhuijinchengheise,danweidaodouchabuduo。tongchangyonghuoxingranliaohuozhijieranliaoranse。

d、jiaozhileiru:jindijiaozhi(n/t)、dijinjiaozhi(t/n)、jinmianjiaozhi(n/c)、mianjinjiaozhi(c/n)、dimianjiaozhi(t/c)、miandijiaozhi(c/t)yijiqitaxianweidejiaozhilei。jiaozhileizhiwumingchengdeshedingshiyi“jingshaxianweimingchengpaiqianmian,weishaxianweimingchengpaihoumian”weizhunzede,ru“n/c”daibiao“jingshaweinilong,weishaweimian”,“c/n”zedaibiao“jingshaweimian,weishaweinilong”。qiyudeyicileitui。

365体育网址e、lingwaihaiyoucusuanxianwei,mao,macansidengxianwei,yeyouhunfangleide,haiyou365tiyuwangzhixianwei(yingwentencel,yishuyeweiyuanliaodezhanjiaoxianwei)。

2、anzhibufangshifenlei:

365体育网址  anzhibufangshifenleizefenweisuozhibu、zhenzhibuhewufangbu,tamenyoukexifenruxia:

365体育网址a、zhenzhibu:yibanyouyuanbianzhenzhibuhejingbianzhenzhibu

365体育网址b、suozhibu:zhiwuyoujingshaheweishajiaocuobianzhiercheng。genjujingweijiaocuochuanchadefangshibutong,youkefenweipingwen(taffeta)、xiewen(twill)、duanwen(sattin)hetihua(dobby)dengjizhongfangshi(zhuyi:pingwen、xiewenheduanwenweizhibude“sanyuanzuzhi”),tongshiyouhuizaijingshahuoweishashangheguzuchenggezhonghuayang。zongzhi,zhongleibianhuafanduo,xuzaishijigongzuozhongyiyijiayiyanjiuhetihui。

c、wufangbu:bujingbianzhi,youxianweizhijiezhanyaercheng。

3、genjushadezhizaofangfalaiqufenzeyoukefenwei:

a、fdy(zhangsihuojiaoyuansi)、dty(didansi)、aty(kongbiansha)。fdyzhichengdechanpinyounisifang、disifang、fdydeniujindengbu;dtyzhichengdechanpinyouchunyafang、taopirong、didanniujinbudeng;atyzhuyaoyongyuzhizaotasilongbu。yeyouyouyishangjizhonghunheshiyongbianzhide,laidadaochanshengchugezhongbutongxiaoguodefengge。

365体育网址b、banguang、xiaoguangheshanguang。banguangshiyizhongjiaozirandechanwu,ruomeiyoujingguotebiechuli,xianweiyibandoushibanguangde;xiaoguangshizaixianweishengchandegongyizhongtianjiayanghuataidechanwu,rangbuliaogengnengtiejintianranxianweidexiaoguo,chanshenggengshushidemeigan;shanguangshixianweishengchanguochengzhongbaxianweijiemianjiejinsanjiaoxinghuoshirangxianweibiaomiangengguanghuaerbaguangxianfanshechuzaochengshanguangdeganjue。

四、常见布种:

365体育网址1、tafuchou(taffeta):nilongtafuchou,diluntafuchou,jindijiaozhitafuchou,yibanqingkuang:shajiaoxi,bumianguangerpinghua,bijiaobo,ru:nilong70d×190t、210t、230t;nilong40d×290t、300t、310t;dilun75d*190t、68d*190t;jindijiaozhi40d×50d×290tdeng。yibanyoufdyshazhicheng。

365体育网址2、niujinlei(oxford):nilongniujin,dilunniujin,tasilongniujin,yibanqingkuang:shajiaocu,qiangduhao,bujiaohou,ru:nilong210d、420d、840d(shufdylei);dilun150d、300d、600d、1200d(shudtylei);dilun210d、420d(fdylei);tasilong200d×300d、400d×500d(shuatylei)deng.

3、tasilonglei(taslon):nilongtasilong,diluntasilong,niujintasilong,yibanqingkuang:weishajiaocu,bumianjiaocucao,youfenghougan,fangmiandeganjue。ru:nilongtasilong70d*160d*178t、184t、228t,tasilong320d,640d,tasilongniujin200d*300d,400d*500ddeng.

365体育网址4、chunyafanglei(pongee):yibanweidilundtysha,bumianjiaocucao(50dchuwai),shouganjiaoruan.ru:dilunchunyafang75d*190t,210t,240t,50d*280t,290t,300tdeng.

5、shanguanglei(trilobal):nilongshanguangtafuchou,dilunshanguangtafuchou,jindijiaozhishanguang,jizhishaweiliangguangsharu:nishanguang70d*190t,210t,dilunshanguangxiewendeng,youdanshanyushuangshanzhifen(danduyijingshahuoweishaweishanguangsidechengweidanshan,jingshaheweishadouweishanguangsidechengweishuangshan)。

6、xiewenlei(twill):bumianwenluweixiewen,xiewenbujingweimiduyibanjiaoda。ru:nilongxiewen70d*210*230t、272t、290t,dilunxiewen75d*75d*230t、260t,haiyoujiaozhixiewendeng.

365体育网址7、zhilei:rujindijiaozhi(n/t)、jinmianjiaozhi(n/c)、dimianjiaozhi(t/c)dengdeng。qizhongdenilonghedilunkeyishifdyde,yekeyishidtyhuoatyde,keyishibanguangde,keyishixiaoguangde,yekeyishishanguangde。qizhongdemianshayoufenyoupushu、banjingshu、jingshu,haiyoudeshizhujieshade。

8、taopilei(microfiber):youchengchaoxixianwei。rudiluntaopi43022(75d*240t)、43099(75d*150d*220t)、43377(xiewen、75d*150d*230t)deng。

9、sedingleiheduanwenlei。

10、lingwaihaiyouyishanggebuzhongbianhuaerchengdegezilei(ripstop)、tihualei(dobby)deng。

五、织物规格的检测:

365体育网址gongzuozhongxushishizhuyidaozhiwudeguigefenxidezhunquexing,yidannongcuohuizaochengwuyiguliangdesunshi,yinciyaotebiezhuyixuexizhiwuguigedefenxihebianbie,bingzaigongzuozhongzhuzhongduoxishoujingyan,wubizuodaofenxizhunque。

1、zhiwudexingzhi:nilong、dilun、mian、n/c、t/cdengdeng。

2、shadexingzhi:fdy、dty、atydeng。

3、fengge(waiguantezheng):pingwen、xiewen、gezi、duanwen、dobbydeng

a、pingwen:youdanjingdanwei、shuangjingshuangwei、shuangjingdanweihuodanjingshuangwei(weishashuanggu)deng。

b、 xiewen:1/2、1/3、2/2、2/3dengjizuoxie、youxie(“\”weizuoxie,“/”weiyouxie);

c、 gezi:youange、fuge(liangxianfu、sanxianfu),tongshihaiyaozhuyigezidedaxiaoyijigezineijingxiang、weixiangxianshuhefugexianfudianzhifadeng。

365体育网址d、 duanwenzeyaozhuyijingsha(huoweisha)fuyujigenweisha(huojingsha)shanghechenyujigenweisha(huojingsha)shang?

365体育网址e、 dobbyhuayangfanduo,zegengyaozhuyifenxizhiwudebianzhiguilv。

f、 zhuyiqitafenggejitezheng。

365体育网址4、 dannishuhuoshazhishu:jingsha、weishayijixiangyingdefshu。

365体育网址5、 jingweimi:wubibawozhiwudebianzhiguilv,shutiaoshuhejisuanyaozhunque。

6、 banguang、xiaoguanghuoshanguang。

7、 budefukuan(yaozhuyishizhenkongneihuozhenkongwaifukuan,haiyaozhuyitujiaohuoqitajiagonghouchengpindeyouxiaofukuan)。


第二章  织物的印染及整理加工基础知识


一、 基本加工流程:

    peijianjifengjiepeibu   tuijiang   ranse   honggan   zhongjian   houzhenglijiagong(baokuodingxing、tujiao、yaguang、yahua、tangjin、tiepvc、tiepuge、fuhe、zhirongdengdeng)

二、 各流程简介及管制重点:

1、 peijianjifengjiepeibu:

a、 jijiangyizhiyizhidepeibufengjiechengyidajuanhuoyiheche,jiaoyigang,yigangshuliangyinbuzhongjiagongbutongerbutong。

b、 peijianzhuyaoshiguanzhipeibupinzhi,kanshifouyouchousha、weidang、sizhe、huangban、meibandengyichang,tongshiyaozhuyiheduibuzhongshifouheyaoqiudeyizhi。zhengchangqingkuangxiaxuyaoyigepihaozhuyijianyanyifan。

365体育网址2、  tuijiang:

365体育网址a、  zhibushiweilerangshabuqimao,shashanglejiang,guranseqianyaotuijiang,yibianshangse。

b、  ruotuijiangbuganjing,ransehoubumianhuichuxiansehua、jiangbandengcidian。

365体育网址c、  tuijianghouyibanyaoshuixiganjing,fouzezaochengzhiwuphzhijiaogaohuichuxianransebuliangdengyichang。

d、  tuijiangfangshiyibanyougangneituijianghezhangchetuijiangliangzhong,yibanweiqianzhetuijiangxiaoguojiaohao,danxiaolvdi。

3、  ranse:

(1)huaxianransefangshi:

a、  changwenjuanran:yibanwenduwei100℃yixia,zhuyaoyongyuranbanguangdenilongtafuchou、nilongniujin、nilongxiewenbudeng。cifangshiyichanshengtouweisecha、zuozhongyousecha、zhehendengyichang。

b、gaowenjuanran:wenduyibanwei130℃zuoyou,zhuyaoyonglairandiluntafuchou、n66、nilongxiaoguangbu、dilunniujin(zhangsi)deng,cifangshiyichanshengtouweisecha、zuozhongyousecha、zhehen、sediandengyichang。

c、yiliuranse:wenduwei100℃zhi130℃zuoyou,zhuyaoyonglairandilunleiruchunyafang、taopirong、dilunniujin、tasilong、jindijiaozhileideng,disifangyekeyongyiliuranse,tongshinisifangjiqitayouranzhouwenyaoqiudeyecaiyongcifangshi。cifangshiyichanshengsehua、jizhuahen、zhitiaoranzhedengyichang。

365体育网址d、jingzhouranse:shihegeleibuzhong,danyaogenjupinzhiyaoqiuhelishiyong,ransewendukekongzhizai100℃zhi130℃yishang,cifangshiyichanshengbianqian、cengchadengyichang。

(2) qitabuzhongderansefangshi:

365体育网址a、  mianburanse:yibancaiyongzhangcheranse(xuyaodapiliang)、yaran(kedapiliang、yekexiaopiliang)、yiliuranse(zhong、xiaopiliang)。keyonghuoxingranliao(laodujiaohao),yekeyongzhijieranliao(laodujiaocha),yekeyonghaiyuanxingranliao(laoduzuihao)。

b、  n/c、c/nranse:yibancaiyongyiliuranse,xianranmianhourannilong,ranmianyonghuoxingranliao,rannilongyongsuanxingranliao(laodujiaohao)。yeyoucaiyongzhijieranliaoyicixingrancheng(laodujiaocha)。

365体育网址c、  t/c、c/transe:yibancaiyongyiliuranse,xianrandilunhouranmian,dilunyongfensanxingranliao,mianyonghuoxingranliao(laodujiaohao)。yeyoucaiyongzhangcheranse,yicirancheng,caiyongzhijieranliao(laodujiaocha)。

(3)ranliaofenlei:

a、 suanxingranliao:yongyurannilongleizhiwu,yibanyaoguseyitigaoselaodu,yeyaozhuyiranliaozuhedexuanzehecaiyonghelideransegongyi。gusejixuanyongbudanghuoyongliangtaigaohuizaochengshouganying。

365体育网址b、 fensanxingranliao:yongyurandilunleizhiwu,yibanyaoyonghaiyuanxilaitigaoselaodu,tongshiyeyaozhuyiranliaozuhedexuanzehecaiyonghelideransegongyi。fensanxingranliaotebiezhuyiyiranwentiheshenghualaoduwenti。

c、 huoxingranliaohezhijieranliao:shuyudiwenxingranliao。

4、 honggan:(yibanfenguntonghongganhewujiechuhongganliangzhong)

365体育网址a、wujiechuhongganyouwujiechuhongganjihe365tiyuwangzhiliangzhong,zhiwuhejiareqizhijianbujiechu,kaobarefengpenshedaozhiwushanglaidadaohonggandemude。zhuyaoyongyuhongganyiliuransedechanpin,yibaochizhiwupengsongfenghoudeshougan。chengbenjiaoguntonghongganweigao。

b、guntonghonggan:buheguntongzhijiejiechu,kaojiareguntonglaidadaohongganbudemude。zhuyaoyongyujuanranhejingzhouransedechanpin(runisifang、disifang、nilongniujin、dilunzhangsiniujindeng),tasilongleiyekexianzaiguntonghongganjishanghonggan(danzhinengxianhongliu、qichengganyimiandaozhishougantaiying),ranhouzaiqu365tiyuwangzhizuoposhuijiagongyitigaoposhuidu。hongganchengbenjiaodi。

5、 zhongjian:

a、zhongjianyaoceshibuliaodegezhongselaodu,tongshiyaozhuyijianchabumianpinzhi,ru:zhehen、secha(secha、gangcha、picha)、sehua、sedian、zangwu、youwu、chousha、weidang、jingtiaodengdeng。

b、kongzhibuliangpinwurangjinruxiagongduan,fangzhizengjiachengben,yinweibuliaojinghouzhenglijiagonghou,bufenyichangwufahuixiuhuozhehuixiuhenkunnan,guzhongjianshifeichangzhongyaode。

c、duibuliaojinruhougongduanqianyaozhongxinzhengli、fengjie。

6、dingxing:

a、zhiwujingdingxinghou,wulixingzhihehuaxuexingzhijunjiaowending,liru:suoshui、fukuan、jingweimidengbuyibianhua,bumianyejiaoweipingzheng。tongshi,zaidingxingzheiyigongduanshanghaikeyizuoyixiegongnengxingjiagong,ruposhui(fangshui)、rouruan、shangshuzhi、zuran、kangjingdian、chaoposhui(tefulongchuli)、xishipaihan、kangjunfangchoudengdeng。

b、yindingxingwendujiaogao,guyingzhuyidingxingqianhouyansedebianhua,tebieshiyixieminganse,ruhuise、junlvse、qiankaqideng。chanpinyibanyaoqiuduizhundingxinghoudeyanse。

c、dingxingkeyikongzhibudefukuan、jingweimi、suolvdeng,tebieshisuolvfangmiandekongzhi,zhijieyingxiangjiagongchengben,guyingtebiezhuyi。(wosidingdansuoshuiyaoqiuyibanshishuixishousuo3%  ,yangedeyaoqiushuixishousuo2%  )。yingxiangdingxingxiaoguodezhuyaoshidingxingdewendu、sudu、chaoweisandayinsu。

365体育网址d、dingxingjizhongjiagongjianjie:

①poshuidingxingrangzhiwuyoufangshuifangchengongneng;

②rouruandingxingrangzhiwushouganbianderouruanhuashuang,danyaozhuyizhiwushifouhuihuasha。poshuiherouruandingxingkeyitongshizuo,rangzhiwujiyoufangshuigongnengyourouruan,danrouruanjihuiyingxiangposhuidu。

③shuzhidingxingzhuyaoyongyuzhiwudegushaherangshouganyingting,youxieshuzhihanyoujiaquan,yaozhuyixuanyong;poshuiheshuzhidingxingkeyitongshizuo,erqieshuzhiduiposhuijiyoucujinzuoyong。

365体育网址④zurandingxingduizhiwudezurangongnengyoufuzhuzuoyong,zuranyekeyitongshizuoposhuidingxing,danyaotebiezhuyiposhuijidexuanyong,fouzeduizuranxiaoguoyingxiangtaida。

⑤kangjingdiandingxingrangzhiwujuyoukangjingdiangongneng,keyiheposhuidingxingtongshizuo,danduiposhuixiaoguoyouyingxiang。

365体育网址⑥xishipaihandingxingrangzhiwukeyixunsudixishouhanshui,zuoyundongzhuangchuanzheyoujiaodadeshushigan。bunengheposhuitongshizuo。

⑦kangjunfangchoujiagongzhuyaoshirangzhiwujuyoukangjungongneng,zhuyaoyongyuyiliaosheshi。

365体育网址⑧chaoposhuidingxing(yejiaotefulongchuli):biputongposhuidingxingyouzhegenghaodefangshui、fangchenxiaoguo,tongshihaijuyoufangyougongneng。yibanlaijiangkerenhuiyaoqiutongguodubangdiaopai。

7、 yaguanghetujiao:

a、  yaguangdezuoyong①diaoruanshougan②rangzhiwuyaguangmiangengweipingzheng、suoxiaozhiwuxianweijiandefengxiyifangrongxiaoguohuoshitujiaoshinengdadaogenggaodeshuiya③rangtujiaomiangengweiguangjiepiaoliang④yaguangmianyouguangliangdexiaoguo。

365体育网址b、yaguangdesanyaosushiwendu、suduheyali。yaguanghuishizhiwudeyansechanshengbianhua。

c、tujiaokeshizhiwujuyoufangshui、fangrong、fangfengdenggongneng,haiyouduizhiwujinxinggusha、zengjiaguangan、zenghoushougandengzuoyong,shizhiwugengjushiyongjiazhi。

365体育网址d、tujiaoyouyakeli(yechengac、pa)、pujiao、toushitouqijiao,keyijiagongchengtoumingjiao、baijiao、yinjiao、sejiao、zhuguangjiao、youlijiaodengdeng。haikeyizaijiaozhongtianjiaxiangyingyuanliaoshizhijuyoukangziwaixian、zuran、kanghuangbiandengzuoyong。

e、tujiaoyaozhuyiguanzhishuiya、shougan(houbo、ruanying)、tujiaojunyundu、jiaodeboliqiangdu、naishuixi(fanbai)qingkuang、baidudengdeng。haiyaozhuyijiaomiandejiaoli、jiaohen、shifouganshuangdeng。yaozhuyijiaomiantiezhishuidai(pvctiao/putiao)dexiaoguo。

365体育网址8、tiehepvc:yaozhuyitiehedehoudu、shougan,tiehedeboliqiangdu,jiaomiandepinzhideng。

365体育网址9、qitajiagong:youganshipu(lixingzhi)、fuhe、pugedengdeng。

10、shuixi:youxiemianbu、n/c、t/chaiyaojingguoshuixigongyi。shuixifenweiputongshuixi、rouruanshuixi、jiaosushuixi(qudiaomianbubiaomiandefumao)sanzhong。

365体育网址11、 chengjian:jianyanchengpinpinzhi,fenchudengji,bingbaozhuangzhengliyibianchuhuo,yibanyaozuochengjianjilujitiepichabiao。yourenhewentidouyaojishifankuijiyewuyuanyibianjishihekehugoutong。


第三章  织物的品质重点


365体育网址1、fukuan:yibanzhiyouxiaofukuan,jizhenkongneifukuan,huotujiaohoudeyouxiaofukuan。

2、jingweimi:youyangeyaoqiushiyidingyaozhuyiceliangjingweimi。

3、weiwanxie:yibangezibuweiwanxieyaoqiubudedayu3%,pingwenbuweiwanxiebudedayu5%。

365体育网址4、suoshuilv:chengpinshuixihoujingxiang、weixiangzheisuolv。

5、泼水度:ISO以度为衡量单位(50度~100度),或以AATCC级别来衡量(1级~5级365体育网址),AATCC的3级相当于ISO的80度。

6、色牢度:这是一项非常重要的指标,它含有水洗牢度(变褪色牢度、沾色牢度)、耐水牢度(变褪色、沾色)、日晒牢度(变褪色)、耐摩擦牢度(变褪色、沾色)、耐汗渍牢度(变褪色、沾色)、升华牢度、移染性等,以级别为衡量标准(1级~5级)。

7、强度:拉力强度、撕裂强度、破裂强度(kg/cm2).

8、耐水压:布抗水压的强度(防水程度),如2000mm/H2O(毫米水柱),数值越高表示防水性能越好。

9、透湿度:单位为g/M2365体育网址*Day,表示在一定的温度和湿度下24小时通过1平方米织物的水的质量。

10、泼油度:用于特氟龙加工织物的一项测试指标,分5级,(1级~5级)。

11、lingwaihaiyouguanyuzuranxingneng、kangjingdian、kangziwaixiandengtexingdeceshi,zheixiedouxuyaozhuanyedejigoucaiyoubanfaceshi,zheilijiubuzixijiangla。